RESEARCHES OF STOCK ABUNDANCE DINAMICS OF SALMON SPECIES IN 1995–2011
V. F. Bugaev
KAMCHATKA, CHINOOK , SOCKEYE, PINK, CHUM, COHO, ARCTIC CHAR, ABUNDANCE
Retrospective review of research activities of the laboratory of stock abundance dynamics and forecast of salmon species, KamchatNIRO, for 1995–2011 has been provided. Until 1992 statistical data about salmon species in several systems (in the rivers Kamchatka, Bolshaya, Khailulya, Utka and in the lakes Kurilskoye, Dalneye, Azabachye) normally was provided every year, but since 1992 the statistics has been enlarged at the expense of geographic extension of sampling. Every year the statistics has been fulfilled by data from new rivers engaged in studying: Palana, Khairyuzova, Icha, Oblukovina, Krutogorova, Vorovskaya, Kol’, Kikhchik, Opala, Kambalnaya, Listvennichnaya, Paratunka, Avacha, Zhupanova, Rusakova, Ivashka, Dranka, Karaga, Kichiga, Vyvyenka, Avyavayam, Kultushnaya, Pakhacha, impuka, Apuka, Ananapyl’gen Rivers and some other. Providing the annual statistics about salmon species has been usual now in majority of the rivers, and data sampling has been regular.
RESULTS OF PHENOTYPICAL STUDIES OF PACIFIC SALMON ONCORHYNCHUS SPP. IN 1990–2010
А. V. Bugaev, R. А. Shaporev, V. А. Savin, А. I. Chistyakova
PACIFIC SALMON, PHENOTYPICAL RESEARCHES, LOCAL STOCKS, SCALE STRUCTURE, DIFFERENTIATION, IDENTIFICATION
Results of phenotypical studies of Pacific salmon, accomplished by staff of KamchatNIRO in 1990–2010, are performed in several principal blocks. 1) Introduction and current use of the methods, based on scale criteria and practicing internationally in population biology. Working out new automatic methods for structural processing of scales and otoliths. 2) Carrying out extensive work to provide intraspecific differentiation and revealing main regional complexes of Pacific salmon stocks in Asia and North America from phenotypes of scale structure. Using results of the work as baseline models. 3) Processing massive pool of scale images, obtained as a result of long-term drift-net surveys. Figuring out general trends in the ratio and spatial-temporal distribution of regional complexes of stocks of mature salmons on their prespawning routs within the EEZ of RF are figured out. 4) Preliminary data about intraspecific structure of Pacific salmon feeding aggregations in the Western Bering Sea in summer and autumn in the early 2000s are obtained. Abundance of Asian and American stocks in mentioned region is estimated. 5) Necessary prerequisites for further development of phenotypic researches in TINRO system are created.
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES IN SALMON HATCHING ON KAMCHATKA
G. V. Zaporozhets, О. М. Zaporozhets
PACIFIC SALMON, SALMON HATCHING, METHODS, TECHNOLOGY
The article provides review of scientific works in the field of artificial reproduction of Pacific salmon on Kamchatka in 1972–2011. Some methods of an estimation of quality and physiological adequacy of young salmon and results of technological experiments on working out of optimum conditions of its cultivation and some characteristics of returned hatchery adult salmon are presented.
RESULTS ON STUDYING INTRASPECIFIC STRUCTURE OF COMMERCIAL FISH SPECIES WITH METHODS OF POPULATION GENETICS
N. Yu. Shpigalskaya, I. A. Pilganchuk, V. V. Savenkov, A. S. Kustova, U. I. Muravskaya, I. N. Saravansky
PINK SALMON, SOCKEYE SALMON, CHINOOK SALMON, WALLEYE POLLOCK, PACIFIC COD, MITOCHONDRIAL DNA, MICROSATELLITE NUCLEUS DNA
Results of studies (2003–2011) on the base of modern methods of molecular genetics to assess population variation for commercial fish species, including pink salmon, sockeye salmon, chinook salmon, walleye pollock and pacific cod, have been demonstrated. Frequencies of polymorph genetic markers from fish of natural populations and foraging or spawning aggregations (more than five thousand individuals, about 100 samples) were used for the analysis.
RESEARCHES OF MARINE COMMERCIAL FISHES IN THE WATERS ADJACENT KAMCHATKA
O. G. Zolotov, A. I. Varkentin, P. A. Balykin*, A. V. Buslov**
MARINE COMMERCIAL FISHES, RESEARCHES, THE SEA OF OKHOTSK, THE BERING SEA, STOCK ABUNDANCE DYNAMICS, RESOURCES
A review of researches of marine commercial fishes in the waters off Kamchatka, carried out by scientists of KamchatNIRO for the period 1995–2010 is provided. Principal directions of research work are figured out, the most important results are determined. Data, characterizing modern state of general commercial species and populations of marine fish in the Bering Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk and Pacific Ocean waters adjacent Kamchatka, their long-term dynamics and trends in a resource sense are demonstrated.
STOCK CONDITION AND FISHERY PROSPECTS OF COMMERCIAL CRUSTACEANS IN THE WATERS OFF KAMCHATKA
E. R. Shaginyan, P. Yu. Ivanov, O. G. Mikhaylova
KING CRAB, DEEPWATER SHRIMP, TANNER CRAB, BAIRDI SNOW CRAB, COMMERCIAL STOCK, STOCK ABUNDANCE, DENSITY DISTRIBUTION, CATCH PER TRAWLING EFFORT, CATCH PER A TRAP
Stock abundance dynamics of king crab commercial males and recruitment was analyzed on the base of data of trawl surveying, provided on the shelf of West Kamchatka in 2000–2011. It was found that rate of king crab abundance decrease has reduced for the period of prohibition of commercial fishing of the crab, and a positive trend in stock abundance condition has began to show. Current condition of deepwater shrimp population in the south-east part of the Okhotsk Sea was analyzed. Condition of stock abundance of tanner crab and snow crab in two commercial districts of the Bering Sea was analyzed on the results of trap surveying.
RESULTS OF RESEARCHES, PROVIDED BY STAFF OF THE LABORATORY OF FRESHWATER BIORESOURCES AND HATCHERY CULTIVATION OF SALMONS
Eu. G. Pogodaev, I. V. Shatilo, М. А. Kudzina, N. А. Chebanov, S. V. Shubkin
FRESHWATER BIORESOURCES, ARTIFICIAL PRODUCTION, ECOSYSTEM MONITORING, MORPHOLOGY OF LAKE HOLLOWS, COMMERCIAL FISH CULTURE, FISH PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT, SPORT FISHING, MARKING OTOLITHS
True contours for majority of sockeye salmon lakes of Kamchatka have been figured out and identified accurately in GPS, 3D simulations of lake hollows, bathymetric maps and basis geomorphologic characteristics have been provided as a result of geodesic and hydroacoustic researches. Echosounding of some plots in the lakes has revealed correlation levels between structure of the water surface thermal parcels and morphological peculiarities of lake hollows, distribution of wind load within the parcels, and specifics in location of tributaries, intensity and temperature of flowing waters. Examination of otolith marking procedures in the course of hatchery cultivation of salmons in Kamchatka has revealed some obstacles, existed a long time and hindered successful marking, and has provided recommendations how to escape the obstacles. Principle scheme of complex measures to increase production of sockeye salmon in spawning-nursery lakes has been recommended. Researches in the field of recreational fishing have revealed formation of unfavorable ecological conditions, indicated by abrupt reduction of frequency of chinook salmon and rainbow trout — two principle and most attractive species and degradation of their biological structure as a result of spontaneous, almost not managed rate of sport fishing activity in several river systems, popular with sportsmen to have tours there. It is found that illegal amateur rope-gear ice fishing in the rivers of Kamchatsky krai can provide removal of smelt, saffron cod and lake herring of 1.5–2 thousand tons a season. Researches of fresh-water bioresources have revealed very high abundances of grayling and pike, status of low abundance and poor studying of whitefish representatives and the need in their further studying and effective protection.
PARTICULAR RESULTS OF BIOLOGICAL RESEARCHES BY THE LABORATORY OF HYDROBIOLOGICAL STUDIES
V. V. Maximenkov, A. V. Lepskaya, A. A. Arkhipova, L. A. Bazarkina, N. I. Vetsler, O. V. Bonk, D. D. Danilin, U. Yu. Lobanova, O. B. Morozov
PHYTOPLANKTON, ZOOPLANKTON, BENTHOS, FEEDING, MONITORING OF LAKES
Results of studying zooplankton and benthos in the coastal area of South-East Kamchatka and studying phyto- and zooplankton in the coastal area of Eastern Okhotsk Sea, as well as of monitoring on the lakes Kurilskoye and Azabachye have been demonstrated
PATHOGENIC AGENTS FOR HYDROBIONTS IN KAMCHATKA
Т. V. Gavruseva, N. V. Sergeenko, Е. А. Ustimenko, Т. V. Ryazanova, Е. V. Bochkova, L. V. Ovcharenko, S. L. Rudakova, Е. А. Gritskikh
КАМЧАТКА, ТИХООКЕАНСКИЕ ЛОСОСИ, СЕЛЬДЬ, КАМБАЛА, КРАБЫ, ВИРУСОЛОГИЯ, БАКТЕРИОЛОГИЯ, ПАРАЗИТОЛОГИЯ, ГИСТОЛОГИЯ
Results of complex researches (virological, bacteriological, parasitological and histological) of freshwater and marine hydrobionts of Kamchatka for the period from 2001 to 2011 have been demonstrated. Data on taxonomic composition and distribution of infective and invasive agents and their effects on the health of hydrobionts have been generalized.
ECOLOGY-FISHERIES RESEARCH AND ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES IMPACT ON AQUATIC BIORESOURCES
T. L. Vvedenskaya, O. O. Koval, A. R. Logachev, A. V. Ulatov
ANTHROPOGENOUS IMPACT, BIOTA, ECOLOGY-FISHERIES MONITORING, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
Scale of anthropogenous load on populations of hydrobionts and their environment are revealed and demonstrated. Effects of seismic oil exploration at sea on aquatic bioresources are estimated, and the last half of fall is advised as the time of minimal risk for the aquatic biota. Monitoring, provided for exploratory oil drilling on the West-Sukhanovsky parcel of shelf, has indicated a poor and short-time summary effect on marine environment, unable to bring any significant harm in populations of fish, marine mammals and invertebrates. In details description is given for typical ecological problems, arising in the course of building of gas-pipe or traffic infrastructure objects on West Kamchatka. Growth of poaching is shown as the most harmful consequence of the infrastructure as a factor of easy reaching up spawning rivers by cars Ecological state of some water bodies situated within Petropavlovsk-Yelizovo urban agglomeration and strongly affected by anthropogenous factors is estimated on the base of the hydrobiological monitoring. Whence in general the state can be reckoned as satisfactory, some plots have got the state “extremely misbalanced”. With that the streams have lost or extensively reduced the role of fish environment. Ecological and fisheries monitoring of the Falshivaya River results in the conclusion that the steam-water flow, emerging from geothermal power station to the river, strongly modifies physical and chemical conditions of water and affects aquatic biota in the upper stream of the Falshivaya R. An integrate assessment of ecological vulnerability and fisheries value of West Kamchatkan shelf is carried out, and major valuable parcels for fisheries are figured out from the results.
GENERAL RESULTS OF MARINE MAMMALS RESEARCH IN 1960–2011
S. I. Kornev, V. S. Nikulin, E. G. Mamaev, O. A. Belonovich
MARINE MAMMALS, FIELS OBSERVATION METHODS, TELEMETRIC RESEARCH
Results of research works, carried out by laboratory of marine mammals research since the early 1960th to nowadays, are analyzed. The main research is provided for northern fur seal at the northern rookery of the Commander Island, and the state of the population can be reckoned as satisfactory. Methods of counting, tagging and reading the tags, which we have worked out, provide getting pretty accurate estimation of current northern fur seal population abundance and forecasting dynamics of the abundance and the TAC. Depth of foraging and range of summer feeding voyages and female winter migrations of the Commander Island northern fur seal is figured out. A long-term monitoring of the parameters of female feeding voyages is set. Original method to monitor whales in the waters surrounding the Commander Islands provides data about species composition and abundance of whales and dolphins. Research of modern state of sea otter populations in Russian waters can characterize the northern subspecies Enhydra l. lutris as a background one in the coastal ecosystems versus rare. It seems reasonable in view of this conclusion to exclude sea otter from the RF list of endangered species. Effects of largha seal on the salmon runs vary by years and streams. Monitoring of wintering group of sea lions in the urban area of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky gives information about seasonal migrations and origin of the animals. It also demonstrates vivid requirement to create adequate conditions for the animals they could rest and to state the rookeries as a regional natural heritage.