КамчатНИРО

Kamchatka Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography

Archives / Volume 26, Part II

RESULTS OF THE USE OF SORTING SYSTEMS ON RUSSIAN FLEET, FISHING BLUE WHITING IN THE FAROES FISHERY ZONE  
О. М. Lapshin,  I. G. Istomin*, V. А. Tatarnikov*, J. A. Jacobsen**, K. Zachariassen**
BLUE WHITING, SORTING SYSTEM, BYCATCH OF NON-TARGET SPECIES, UNDERWATER OBSERVATIONS, WALLEYE POLLOCK
Due to by-catch of unwanted species as saithe (Pollachius virens), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), and redfish (Sebastes marinus) in the blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) fishery in Faroese fishing zone (FFZ), the Faroese and Russian fishery authorities decided in 2007 to introduce a special sorting grid system when fishing for blue whiting. This system is mandatory to use in large parts in the Faroese fishing zone. The system consists of a special sorting grid with 55 mm bar space, inserted into the trawl in front of the cod-end, into an additional netting section. In front of the grid a small leading panel was inserted to lead the blue whiting from the escape opening. Video recordings were used to observe the behaviour of blue whiting in front of the escape opening. The by-catch was collected in special collector cod-ends. Experiments in 2008 and 2009 were used to analyse the amount of blue whiting escaping with unwanted species, comparison of unwanted species quantity in presence/absence of the sorting system in the trawl. By using the sorting grid a decrease of by-catch of saithe was obtained ranging from 1.46–3 times, and of all unwanted species (saithe, mackerel, redfish, and haddock) the reduction was 0.25–3.25 times. The efficiency of the sorting grid system as a management tool depends on season of the year, as the abundance of unwanted species in the blue whiting shoals vary during the year. Due to low efficiency of selective cylindrical net panel with square mesh fixed between belly and cod-end using in walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) fishery in the north-east part of Pacific Ocean authors recommended to implement constructive decisions from using sorting grid system in blue whiting fishery on walleye pollock fishery.
P. 11-35

TRIAL CONSOLIDATION OF WEST KAMCHATKAN SUBZONES FOR WALLEYE POLLOCK FISHERY CAMPAIGN 2010
А. I. Varkentin
WALLEYE POLLOCK, STOCK ABUNDANCE ASSESSMENT, COMBINING SUBZONES, BYCATCH OF YOUNG FISH
The new experience in 2010 consisted in the possibility to realize commercial and offshore quotas  within the West Kamchatkan and Kamchatka-Kuril subzones as if  it were one subzone. The experience of combining the West Kamchatkan and Kamchatka-Kuril subzones in 2010 should be reckoned as successful in biological and practical sense. For three months the TAC was realized more than in 80%. The fishery pressure to the West Kamchatkan subzone, where the incidental catches of young fish are usually high in the northern part, has been visibly reduced. The approach should provide a good effect in the abundance of the nearest recruitment of walleye Pollock, and the practice of combining the subzones on West Kamchatka is recommended to apply for the next campaign.
P. 36-42

FEATURES OF APPLICATION OF THE OLYMPIC SYSTEM IN PACIFIC SALMONS FISHERY WITH “BASIN” PRINCIPLE AT THE KAMCHATKA REGION
A. V. Vinnikov*, E. A. Shevlyakov, L. I. Grohotova*, E. V. Vinnikova*, Yu. A. Denisov*, A. V. Tatarinov*
PACIFIC SALMON, PRODUCTION, A GROUP OF FISHING GROUNDS
In 2010 the fishery companies in Kamchatsky krai, dealing with fishing Pacific Salmon, had got a new practical experience as a result of introduction of a new system of Pacific Salmon fishery management on the basin principle. The use of the basin principle in management of fishing Pacific Salmon in Kamchatsky krai in the course of campaign 2010 provided reaching the level of the catch of 152.4 thousand tons, what is a maximum for odd years of recent decade.
P. 43-46

ON USE OF BOTTOM FISH BY-CATCHES AT TRAWL BOTTOM FISHERY IN THE BARENTS SEA. POSSIBILITY OF MULTISPECIES FISHERY
E. V. Gusev
THE BARENTS SEA, COD, BOTTOM TRAWL FISHING, TARGETED FISHING
The issues of improvement of management system and of conservation living aquatic resources come to the fore in formulating directions of development of national marine fisheries. The major species for current bottom trawl and long line fisheries in the Barents Sea are Atlantic cod and haddock. The bottom trawl fisheries provide approximately 90% of the annual catch of these species. Results of correlative analysis of the interannual dynamics of cod catches and  bycatches of the other species in the Barents Sea confirm occurrence of interannual inverse correlation. Fluctuating stock abundance of cod and haddock and changing commercial quotas are general drivers of the correlation.
P. 47-55

PROBLEMS OF ORGANIZING ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND FISHERIES
М. N. Kovalenko, K. M. Malich
KAMCHATKA SHELF, COASTAL FISHING, DISCARDS, OVERCATCH, RESOURCE BASE, FISHERY MANAGEMENT
The article provides analysis of the problems of ecologically sustainable regime of the use of particular fishing gears or types of fishing, of the rational use of resource base of commercial fisheries, causes of discarding hydrobionts and potential solutions of mentioned problems. Principal causes of undermining resource base are demonstrated, and Zero Waste technology in processing hydrobionts is deduced as a keystone in fishery management.
P. 56-64

COMPARATIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF DANISH SEINE AND TRAWL CATCHES ON THE WEST COAST OF KAMCHATKA
E. L. Kondrashenkov, D. А. Terentiev
BOTTOM TRAWL FISHING, DANISH SEINE FISHING, PARAMETERS OF FISHING GEARS, DEMERSAL FISH SPECIES, INVERTEBRATES
The data obtained in the course of July research work in 2007–2010 on the part of shelf in the Kamchatka-Kuril subzone provided basis to compare species and size composition of averaged bottom trawl catch and Danish seine catch. Results of hydrobiological surveys, accomplished by the bottom trawls and Danish seines, indicate that both fishing gears can be used as survey gears.
P. 65-68

POSSIBLE CATCH’S DISCARD AT FISHERY IN GULF OF THE PETER GREAT
O. N. Kruchinin, M. A. Mizyurkin, A. Yu. Chebov
DEMERSAL FISH SPECIES, BOTTOM TRAWL FISHING, DANISH SEINE FISHING, DISCARD
An assessment of discards of invertebrates is provided on the base of  authors’ experimental research on the effectiveness of fishing of the bottom trawl 25.3/21.4 in the Peter the Great Gulf in 2009–2010,  a comparison of species composition and ratio in catches, recorded in the course of the research and delivered ashore, has made.
Preliminary assessment has indicated that the annual volume of discards in the Peter the Great Gulf can reach 3.5 thousand tons in bottom trawl fishing solely. The discard can take from 55 to 73% from the catch. As the volume and the composition of species in the Danish seine discard demonstrate only insufficient difference comparing trawl discards, the volume can be doubled. Thus, the task number one in making the fishery rational is to make fishing and processing companies to take and to process all or almost all caught. Realization of the task requires changes in fishery regulations and working out innovative processing technologies to obtain food, forage or medicine production made of hydrobionts, discarding now.
P. 69-73

A VARIANT OF FISHING REGULATION SYSTEM MODERNIZATION BASED ON ADAPTATION-DETERMINED MODELS OF FISHING OBJECT BEHAVIOR
Y. A. Kuznetsov*, L. N. Bocharov**, V. N. Akulin**, M. Y. Kuznetsov**
STOCHASTIC MODELS, FISHERY MANAGEMENT, ACOUSTIC FIELDS, FISHING GEAR OPERATION ZONE, MONITORING OF FISHERY
As a rule relatively simple stochastic models of complex systems provide theoretic basis for management of multispecies fishery. Such approach allows to bypass problematic issues, intentionally conceal  or arbitrarily omit the nature of misbalances in the fishery management. The models are analytic in their type and bear a number of assumptions in decision-making, so they are designed to achieve sustainability and adequacy at the expense of natural self regulation of objects (including stock abundance self regulation). The problem of stock abundance assessment and forecasting the TAC is addressing to  deficiency of the data about age structure and uncertainty (inauthentic) in the data about the annual catch. For today the technical science has been unfairly denied of financing from the national budget, although the lack of appropriate technical norms to increase the objectivity of accounting and the effectiveness of fishery management is a root case of loosing profits on the fishery and  of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing motivation.
P. 74-86

ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF INDUSTRIAL FISHING: PROBLEMS  AND SOLUTIONS
A. A. Mays*, V. V. Shevchenko**
MONITORING OF FISHERY, ECOLOGY, OVERCATCH, DRIFT NET FISHING, EFFECTIVENESS OF FISHING, SELECTIVITY
The article if an attempt to summarize available scientific evidence and experience in the field of the influence of commercial fisheries to the state of aquatic biological resources and marine ecosystems in Russia. Most fishing gears (trawls, Danish seines, longlines, drift nets and so on) cannot provide harvesting single species what causes mortality of none-targeted marine hydrobionts. The by catch of none-targeted species often is almost equal to the catch of targeted species. In this view, it is proposed, aside from the other activities, to organize institution of independent observers, which would reduce the number of cases of violations of fishing regulations and increase efficiency of fishing.
P. 87-96

SOLVING OF THE PRACTICAL PROBLEMS WITH USE OF THE MODERN GENERAL THEORY OF INDUSTRIAL FISHERY
A. V. Melnikov, V. N. Melnikov, A. N. Nevalennyi
SELECTIVITY, COMMERCIAL SIZE, PARAMETERS OF FISHING GEARS
This paper mainly deals with the problems and ways of regulation of particular selective parameters and total selectivity of net fishing gears and organization of managing selectivity. The tasks of selectivity often cannot be accomplished without theoretical and practical base elaborated for selective fishing, fishery and fisheries. The base should eventually provide the only thing — to make fishing selectivity optimized for rational and efficient  fisheries of various objects in a number of districts in different seasons.
P. 97-105

SOLVING OF THE PRACTICAL PROBLEMS WITH USE OF THE MODERN GENERAL THEORY OF INDUSTRIAL FISHERY
A. V. Melnikov, V. N. Melnikov, A. N. Nevalennyi
SELECTIVITY, EFFECTIVENESS OF FISHING, SIMULATION OF FISHERY PROCESSES
It is indicated in the report that long-term  researches have been resulted in launching and successfully developing new directions in fisheries science, including biophysical and biotechnological directions, commercial cybernetics, commercial-ecological cybernetics, provision of strength reliability and efficiency of fishing gears, generalized theory of commercial fishing,  fisheries management cybernetics. Authors propose several approaches to elaboration of general theory of commercial fisheries and to solving various practical tasks on the base of the approaches. Suggested mathematical models of fishing selectivity describe size, sex and species selectivity of fishing in relation to spatial and temporal distribution of targeted species. The models, combined with basic equilibriums of fishing selectivity, can characterize selectivity as integrative index of fishery effects selectivity.
P.106-114

HOW TO SOLVE THE PROBLEMS OF DIFFERENT SELECTIVE SYSTEMS AND FISHING GEAR’S CREATION IN THE NORTH
P. G. Mikhalchuk, A. Yu. Lihograev
SELECTIVITY, SORTING SYSTEMS, MODEL TESTS
A linking role of “Sevrybproekt” Ltd. between fishery science and practice is demonstrated. Variety of fishing gears produced is described, including a trawl, elaborated by constructors of the company in order to bring minimum effects to bottom substrate and risks to demesral communities from trawls and trawl components. The company “Sevrybproekt” Ltd. provides testing models of fishing gears at their own hydrodynamic station in order to optimize expenses for making new gears.
C.115-119


THE NEED TO INCREASE DOMESTIC MARKET SHARE OF FISH PRODUCTION THROUGH VALUE ADDED PROCESSING
V. N. Murzak
FISH TRADE PRODUCTION, MARKETS, TRANSPORTATION EXPENDITURES
Authors provide their vision of the causes of a short delivery of fish products to domestic market. Russian Federation remains one of few countries, where harvesting aquatic biological resources of natural origin prevails, however, a huge part of the catches in Kamchatsky krai (36.2%) does not reach  the Russian consumer, going for export, while every year every citizen currently does not have 46.8% of physiological norm in consumption of fish and seafood. The most popular fish products in Russian market, including preserves, conserves, salted filets in vacuum packages, pass deep processing and have a high share of value added in the structure of the retail price. Ensuring the domestic market of such products is possible in the case of modernization of the coastal fishing industry. This is a priority, if reorientation of fish catches and extending processing to food products to domestic market were implied.
P.120-129

 RESEARCH ON POSSIBILITY TO USE THE PELAGIC TRAWL IN BOTTOM FISHERY IN THE BARENTS SEA
A. A. Pavlenko, A. S. Ostrovsky
COD, TRAWL FISHING, SELECTIVITY, SORTING SYSTEM
The article presents results of experimental work, provided in order to improve methods of fishing cod and haddock by pelagic  trawls, equipped with sorting systems. It  also provides analysis of selective characteristics of the pelagic trawl in different modifications of codends, sorting equipment with the rhombic or square meshes and various selective grids. The midwater trawls can be used in fishing demersal fish species only simultaneously with bottom trawls. That is because cod is available for the pelagic trawl only in some districts and just in particular season. The use of the pelagic trawls with improved selectivity at the expense of sorting systems for fishing cod and haddock in the Barents Sea would significantly reduce negative effects for benthos and increase efficiency of cod fishing.
P.130-137

DISCHARGES: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES
V. A. Tatarnikov

TRAWL FISHING, SELECTIVITY, BYCATCH, MONITORING OF FISHERY
The paper considers principal types and causes of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (IUU). Negative direct and indirect consequences of mass discarding young fish in the course of fishing are demonstrated on the base of analyzing results of a research. It is noted that only an objective assessment of the value of each catch will ensure significant or complete reduction of discarding. An objective assessment of the catch with recording and saving the results in digital format can be provided only by automatic weighting equipment. Elaboration of electronic devices for assessment trawl catches and saving results seem appropriate, necessary and benefiting for the fishing industry in the whole.
Р. 138-143

TO THE CHALLENGE OF MULTISPECIES FISHERY ORGANIZATION  IN THE WATERS ADJACENT KAMCHATKA
D. А. Terentiev
MULTISPECIES FISHING, SELECTIVITY, BYCATCH, MONITORING OF FISHERY
The paper addresses to principal problems for fishery today: negative effects in marine ecosystems from catch discards and discrepancy between official statistics and real amount and composition of the catches. It is noted that sharing the catches at the level lower species does not contribute appropriately to rational use of living resources. Each owner of license for fishing thrives declare in the reports only those of harvested species and only those amount, which are in the license obtained, or else the company or the vessel owning the license will be punished by fish protection organs. As a result a huge part of discarded catch has not been declared in the official statistics, what in its turn leads to mistaken estimation of fishery intensity and of the state of the resource stock abundance. The challenge on regulation of fishing cannot be accepted in view of solely biological grounding, a complex of social and economic factors requires extensive revising.
C.144-148

ASSESSMENT OF KING CRAB (PARALITHODES CAMTSCHATICUS) BYCATCH ON WEST KAMCHATKAN SHELF FROM THE DATA OF DANISH SEINE SURVEYS
D. А. Terentiev, E. R. Shaginyan
KING CRAB, DANISH SEINE FISHING, TRAWL SURVEYS, BYCATCH, MONITORING OF FISHERY
Quantitative estimation of the bycatch of king crab in Danish seine fishery is of a grate practical importance for monitoring the state of king crab stock abundance. The annual bycatch on the average annual data is estimated as 15.6% or 462 tons. Even if survival of king crab on return into the native environment were taken into account (the survival on G. Stevens (1990) is about 21%), in view of modern poor state of king crab stock abundance the amount is significant and should be taken into account in monitoring the state of king crab stock abundance on the coast of West Kamchatka
P.149-154

TO THE ISSUE OF REGULATION OF KING CRAB FISHERY ON WEST KAMCHATKA
E. R. Shaginyan, D. А. Terentiev
KING CRAB, CRAB TRAPS, SURVIVAL, MONITORING OF FISHING
The paper provides analysis of measures of king crab fishery regulation  and recommendations for estimation of potential catch per one vessel on the base of scientific analysis. The state of stock abundance of king crab on the coast of West Kamchatka is poor during recent decade. First of all that is result of a high anthropogenic pressure to the population, where illegal catch of this valuable and bringing hard currency object has been prevailing. Thus, reduction of the excessive pressure to the population and a rational and sustainable exploitation of the crab resource should be realized only on the base of scientific  recommendations concerning the catch and organization of fishery.
P.155-160

JUSTIFICATION OF THE RESTRICTIVE MEASURES ON BY-CATCH SMALL FISH ON POLLOCK FISHERY
A. I. Shevchenko*, S. E. Astafyev*, V. M. Volotov*, I. G. Uleyskiy**
WALLEYE POLLOCK, TRAWL FISHING, SELECTIVITY, SURVIVAL, MONITORING OF FISHING
On the data, obtained by scientists of TINRO-Center on the commercial and research vessels in 1998?2009, only in 23.5% of trawling events the size composition of caught fish answer existing requirements. It has been revealed on the base of analysis of 1557 commercial trawlings in the Okhotsk Sea when investigating selective parameters of various trawls that the amount of catch is determinative for the size composition of fish in the catch. An increase of catch per unit of fishing time causes a decrease in selectivity and an increase of bycatch of small-sized walleye Pollock individuals. This is why regulation of fishery requires making a research, addressed to working out and grounding measures, providing legalization and use of the bycatch of small-sized walleye Pollock.
P.161-166

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