EMBRYOGENESIS AND EARLY POSTEMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT OF CODFISHES OF THE FAR EASTERN SEAS
A. V. Buslov*, N. P. Sergeeva
*Director, Ph. d., Sakhalin Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography
Senior scientist, Kamchatka Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography
WALLEYE POLLOCK, PACIFIC COD, SAFFRON COD, TEMPERATURE, MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTER, STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT, DURATION OF EMBRYOGENESIS, MORPHOGENESIS, EGGS, EMBRYO, PRELARVA
Description of embryonic and postembryonic growth and development of Walleye pollock, Pacific cod and Saffron cod is provided. There have been proposed 22 morphological characters during embryogenesis, which are simple in identification and helpful to check the course of morphogenesis. For three mentioned species of codfish the duration of the embryogenesis or particular stages increases exponentially when temperature of water decreases. It is demonstrated that the rate of the development differs at different temperatures or changes with a change of temperature regime. Analysis of the temperature effects in the development has revealed that changes in duration of early stages were minor, whereas visible decrease of the rate of the embryogenesis dueto the water temperature decrease was timed to late stages of the embryonic growth, what can be reckoned as adaptation to emergence under the best terms. It is demonstrated that development of Walleye pollock embryos at the water temperatures below zero can affect formation of stock abundance of Walleye pollock generation.
The ratio between duration of different stages of embryogenesis was estimated on the scale by Rass, well known for codfishes. It varied depending temperature conditions. Although the duration of particular stages of Pacific cod embryogenesis showed significant changes, the relative ratio of stages was stable at positive temperatures; at negative temperatures the stage of cleavage and the stage of germ band got shortened, and the stage of developed embryo took almost a half in the total embryogenesis. Saffron cod demonstrated maximal duration of the final stage of developed embryo. Particular ecological aspects of development in early ontogenesis have been discussed. Differences between three species of codfishes in the course of embryogenesis and determinants of the differences, related to different environmental conditions, are demonstrated, a comparison is provided. Analysis of behavior and morphogenesis of codfish prelarvae observed during aquarium rearing is made. Authors have analyzed particular aspects of pragmatic character on experimenting Walleye pollock egg incubation and found the results helpful to optimize interpreting data of egg surveys.
BIOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF COHO ONCORHYNCHUS KISUTCH (WALBAUM) OF THE CONTINENTAL SEA-SHORE OF THE SEA OF OKHOTSK
S. L. Marchenko, V. V. Volobuev, D. V. Makarov
SIZE, WEIGHT AND AGE STRUCTURE, FERTILITY AND CORRELATION
Coho takes the third place in the stock abundance of salmon in the water basins of the continental sea-shore of the Sea of Okhotsk. Analysis of age structure of coho populations is conducted and geographical peculiarities of this index are revealed in the article. Size, weight structure and indexes of fertility of Okhotomorsk coho are studied. It is determined that all these indexes yield to Sakhalin coho. Okhotomorsk coho has a bigger value of fertility though average indexes of the character do not exceed the indexes of a number of Asian stocks.
CONDITION OF FISHERY AND MARINE BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES IN THE WESTERN BERING SEA
P. A. Balykin, V. N. Filatov
Head of lab., Senior scientist, Southern Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences
FISHERY, MARINE BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES, FISHING GEARS, THE WESTERN BERING SEA
The modern condition of resources of the fishery in the Western Bering Sea is characterized. The seasonal nature of different crafts and them spatial variability is considered. The catches last years did not exceed 410 thousand tons, that less than 9% of a biomass of water bioresources accessible to a fishery. Hence, there are significant reserves for development of fishery.
STATE AND DYNAMICS OF FISH STOCKS IN THE WATERS OF PRIMORYE (JAPAN SEA) IN 1983–2011
A. N. Vdovin, S. F. Solomatov
Leading scientist, head of sector, Pacific research fisheries center
TRAWL SURVEY, STOCK, STOCK DYNAMICS, POLLOCK, GREENLING, SAFFRON COD, HERRING, FLOUNDER, SCULPIN
Results of 40 bottom trawl surveys, accomplished from 1983 to 2011 in the sea waters of Primorye, were analyzed. Comparatively more stable conditions in the course of the surveys in the Gulf of Piotr Velikiy provided getting more convincing results in this area. It has revealed an increase in the abundance of mass species of Pleuronectidae and Cottidae in recent years. The increase in the abundance of sculpins is expected stopping to 2012–2016, and the increase in the abundance of flounders — to 2015–2018. Revealed stock abundance of walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma, arabesque greenling Pleurogrammus azonus and Pacific herring Clupea pallasii was less than the average annual level. Moreover, the abundance of walleye Pollock and arabesque greenling demonstrates rapid reduction, although it is expected to stop and get stabilized in 2012–2013. Since 2013–2014 walleye pollock, arabesque greenling and Pacific herring are expected to demonstrate some increase in their stock abundance. Saffron cod stock abundance is high for now, but judging from the period of high abundance it should begin to decrease in nearest two or three years. The total stock abundance of mentioned fish species is expected to exceed the average annual level (similar to the abundance observed in the 1980th.
MODERN STATE OF SAFFRON COD ELEGINUS GRACILIS STOCK ABUNDANCE IN THE OKHOTSK SEA
O. V. Novikova
Junior scientist, Kamchatka Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography
OKHOTSK SEA, SAFFRON COD, SIZE-WEIGHT COMPOSITION, COMMERCIAL STOCK ABUNDANCE DYNAMICS, COMMERCIAL FISHING, CATCH DYNAMICS
General commercial stock of saffron cod in the Okhotsk Sea is located within the West Kamchatkan and Kamchatka-Kuril subzones and is equal for the period of observation from 2007 to 2012 averagely 69,9 thousand tons. In the East Sakhalin and Northern Okhotsk Sea subzones the commercial stocks can be estimated averagely as 27,5 and 2,3 thousand tons respectively. West Kamchatkan saffron cod stock, it being compared to saffron cod from Terpeniya Bay, South-East Sakhalin and Northern Okhotsk Sea, demonstrates wider fluctuations of biomass, what can indicate of unstable conditions, caused by specific hydrochemical regime in the coastal waters.
CONDITION FOR SPAWNING OF GIZHIGINA-KAMCHATKAN PACIFIC HERRING STOCK AND INTERACTIONS BETWEEN THE CONDITIONS AND VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
A. A. Smirnov
Deputy. Dir., Magadan Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography
PACIFIC HERRING, AGE, SPAWNING, SUBSTRATE
Conditions for spawning of Gizhigina-Kamchatkan Pacific herring stock have been examined on the base of observations, provided by MagadanNIRO in 1960–2010. The time and water temperature range of spawning have been figured out. Characterization of spawning substrate is provided.
BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF LONGHEAD DAB MYZOPSETTA PROBOSCIDEA (PLEURONECTIDAE) NORTHERN PART OF OKHOTSK SEA
R. R. Yusupov
Senior scientist, Magadan Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanograhy
MIZOPSETTA PROBOSCIDEA, AGE, GROWTH, MATURING, FRUITFULNESS
Data on размерно-weight and age structure, to growth, maturing and fruitfulness of longhead dab Mizopsetta proboscidea, living in northern part of sea of Okhotsk are resulted. The comparative analysis of the received materials with the literary data on longhead dab, significant variability of its biological characteristics in different areas of Okhotsk Sea. In conditions of northern part of Okhotsk Sea longhead dab is characterized by rather slowed down growth and the high life expectancy reaching 21+ years. One of the factors limiting number of a quantity in researched area, can act in deficiency of males. On the other hand, the positive result of experiment on incubation caviar longhead dab impregnated by a seed liquid males yellowfin sole Limanda aspera, allows to assume, that alongside with usual type of reproduction, at this flounder can take place ginogenesis. However, the final answer to a question: whether consequence it ginogenesis, or interspecific crossing at a level of genus Limanda and Myzopsetta, it will be possible to receive only research nuclear ДНК parents and posterities a method of molecular genetics.
INFECTION AND INVASION DISEASES AND THEIR PREVALENCE IN HARVESTED CRABS FROM WESTERN KAMCHATKA SHELF
Т. V. Ryazanova, V. I. Kharlamenko*, Е. А. Ustimenko
Acting senior scientist, senior scientist,Kamchatka Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography
KAMCHATKA, CRABS, INFECTION DISEASES, PARASITIC DISEASES, PREVALENCE
This paper provided data 2002–2010 years on research of infectious and parasitic diseases and their prevalence in populations of four harvested species of crabs from Western Kamchatka shelf: the lithodid crabs Paralithodes camtschaticus and P. platypus and majid crabs Chionoecetes opilio and C. bairdi. According to the results of visual registrations in the catches, pathologoanatomic, parasitological, bacteriological, histological and histochemical studies the shell disease, necrosis of internal organs, and viral infections were the most important among infectious diseases. Microsporidia and dinoflagellates Hematodinium sp. were most common among parasitic pathogens. The effect caused by ciliate, amoeba, rhizocephalan B. callosus was insignificant.
COMPOSITION AND DISTRIBUTION FREQUENCY OF PATHOGEN SPECIES IN SOCKEYE SALMON IN SPAWNING-NURSERY LAKES OF KAMCHATKA
N. V. Sergeenko, T. V. Gavruseva, E. A. Ustimenko, E. V. Bochkova, L. V. Ovcharenko, S. L. Rudakova, E. A. Gritskih
Senior scientist, head of lab., senior scientist, scientist, junior scientist, deputy director, junior scientist, Kamchatka Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography
This paper gives the results of comprehensive ichtio-pathological investigation of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from the feeding-spawning lakes of Kamchatka (Nachikinskoye, Kurilskoe, Azabachie) conducted between 2004 and 2010. The information on describes the species composition, the prevalence of infectious and parasitic agents, as well as their impact on the health of fish. The investigation identified reserves distressed by a particularly dangerous infections, that can affect the populations of sockeye salmon.