КамчатНИРО

Kamchatka Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography

Archives / Volume 30

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MODERN STATE OF STOCK ABUNDANCE, LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF DISTRIBUTION AND SIZE COMPOSITION OF MASS COMMERCIAL FISH SPECIES ON THE SHELF OF WEST KAMCHATKA IN SUMMER SEASON
D. А. Terentiev, E. A. Mihalutin, A. A. Matveev

SHELF OF WEST KAMCHATKA, BOTTOM TRAWL SURVEY, STOCK ABUNDANCE, COMMERCIAL FISH SPECIES, DYNAMICS OF DISTRIBUTION AND SIZE COMPOSITION

Modern data about fish stock abundance on the shelf of West Kamchatka are provided on the results of summer survey in 2012. Dynamics of distribution and size composition of abundant commercial fish species, including Walleye pollock, Pacific cod, Saffron cod, Yellowfin sole and Sakhalin flounder, are analyzed on the base of survey data for 2005 and 2007–2012.

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND STOCK ABUNDANCE DYNAMICS OF SOCKEYE SALMON LOCAL STOCKS IN THE NORTHERN COMMERCIAL FISHERY DISTRICTS OF KAMCHATSKY KRAI
E. G. Pogodaev

SOCKEYE SALMON, THE WEST KAMCHATKAN SUBZONE, THE KARAGINSKAYA SUBZONE, THE WEST BERING SEA ZONE, DISTRIBUTION, ESCAPEMENT DENSITY, THE CATCH

Comparative characterization of some local stocks of sockeye salmon in the West Bering Sea zone, Karaginskaya and West Kamchatkan subzones is provided. Spatial distribution and contribution of particular watersheds in sockeye salmon general structure in the northern commercial fishery districts are estimated on the base of collected long-term data on the escapement density and catch. It is found that visible domination of sockeye salmon of the North East in major population parameters has provided not only a result of high local concentration of sockeye salmon watersheds, but rather due to a number of nursery sockeye salmon lakes in the systems. (p. 28)

STRUCTURE OF MATURE SOCKEYE SALMON STOCK (ONCORHYNCHUS NERKA) IN APUKA RIVER (NORT HEASTERN KAMCHATKA)
N. V. Klovach, A. N. Elnikov
SOCKEYE SALMON, NORTH-EAST OF KAMCHATKA, THE TERMS OF SALMON RUN, THE AGE COMPOSITION
The results of research of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum) р. Апука — the largest river of the North-East of Kamchatka, which flows into the Olyutorsky Bay of the Bering Sea. It is established that the herd of Apuka River presented migrants early period of the progress, spawning in Vatyt-Gytkhyn Lake, located in the lower part of the basin and of fish of the late timing of the implementation, spawning in the upper reaches of the river. Sockeye early period of the progress appears in the river with signs of spawning changes and a high value gonado-somatic index (GSI). Sockeye later term progress migrates into the river without signs of spawning changes and a relatively low-CIO. The size and age composition of the producers of sockeye salmon early and late period of the progress varies. (p. 39)

FEEDING OF GADUS MACROCEPHALUS (TILESIUS) IN THE TAUI BAY OF THE SEA OF OKHOTSK IN SPRING TIME
V. D. Zharnikova
FEEDING, COD, BODY LENGTH, RATION, NOURISHMENT
During the spawning (in March) cod continues to feed. The share of shellfish as its dietary intake makes up to 80% fish ration. Size and age dynamics of feeding is seen within the fish spawning period. Content of macroplankton (euphausiacea, ysida, heperiidea) decreases in the ration of the fish while its size increases. The intensity of feeding decreases in the process of gonads’ maturation. (p. 44)

GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULATIONS OF THE PACIFIC SALMON (Oncorhynchus, Salmoniformes) DETERMINED WITH VARIABILITY OF MICROSATELLITE LOCI
S. P. Pustovoit
GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION, PACIFIC SALMON, MICROSATELLITE VARIABILITY
The analysis of available information on levels of genetic variability of microsatellite loci (FST) in populations of the pacific salmons showed existence of steady specific features of this parameter of population structure. For each species of pacific salmon the certain level of genetic differentiation is characteristic. Species of the salmons breeding in the rivers of the American coast of the Pacific Ocean as increase in the size FST it is possible to arrange in the form of the following row: pink salmon (even) < pink salmon (odd) < chum salmon < chinook salmon < coho salmon < sockeye salmon. This row differs from the row received on variability of allozyme loci only the position of a coho salmon (Pustovoit, 2010). In Asian populations of sockeye salmon and chum salmon genetic differentiation is lower, than in the American. Important influence on the size of genetic differentiation of population can have existence of such intraspecific forms as races (early and late), inhabited and anadromous, lake and river, etc. (p. 51)

DISTRIBUTION OF CEPHALOPOD MOLLUSKS IN THE SUBARCTIC FRONTAL ZONE OF THE NORTHWESTERN PACIFIC OCEAN
G. A. Shevtsov, O. N. Katugin, M. A. Zuev

CEPHALOPOD MOLLUSKS, SUBARCTIC FRONTAL ZONE, DISTRIBUTION

Peculiarities of spatial and vertical distribution and some biological features of pelagic cephalopod mollusks have been studied in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. The total sample of cephalopod mollusk caught during the complex survey in the Subarctic frontal zone in November 2001 included 77 520 invertebrates. The midwater and plankton trawl catches included representatives of 38 species from two orders of Cephalopoda: Teuthida (squids) and Octopoda (octopuses). Thirty five species of squid (11 families identified) of the suborder Oegopsina have been identified, including Enoploteuthidae, Ancistrocheiridae, Octopoteuthidae, Onychoteuthidae, Gonatidae, Histioteuthidae, Brachioteuthidae, Ommastrephidae, Chiroteuthidae, Mastigoteuthidae and Cranchiidae. Three species of octopods, representing the families Ocythoidae, Alloposidae and Octopodidae of the suborder Incirrina have been identified as well. The fauna is generally represented by pelagic boreal and tropical species and also includes pelagic cosmopolitan species what can illustrate diversity of oceanological conditions in the western Subarctic frontal zone. (p. 64)

SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF THE TOTAL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AT SACCHARINA BONGARDIANA (LAMINARIALES, PHAEOPHYTA), GROWING IN AVACHA BAY (SOUTHEAST KAMCHATKA)
A. A. Koneva, N. G. Klochkova
LAMINARIA SACCHARINA BONGARDIANA, ORDER LAMINARIALES, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ALGINIC ACIDS, DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
Results of studying of monthly changes of the content of water, total of organic and mineral substances, alginic acids at the most widespread trade species of brown algas of southeast Kamchatka of Saccharina bongardiana (Laminariales) are given. They are connected with change of phenological phases of plants development. Material for research was collected from April to October in an internal part of the Avacha bay, in the area, which characterized by anthropogenous pollution. It is shown that in 2011 the maximum content of water at Saccharina was 93.5% in April in period of active linear growth of plants and 90% in August. This phenomena isn’t so typical for summer development of the Kamchatka’s laminariacean. Increase in the content of water in S. bongardiana plates in August is possible to explain activization by linear growth of the plates, followed after their strong destruction, caused by appreciable increase of coastal water temperature during period from end of July – beginning of August. The content of organic and mineral substances, alginic acids in this species also undergoes considerable monthly changes. They are defined by specifics of seasonal development of a species in the anthropogenous environment and its violations under the influence of abnormal temperatures. (p. 82)

DYNAMICS OF THE COMPOSITION OF FATTY ACIDS OF JUVENILE CHUM AND PINK SALMON IN THE COURSE OF AUTUMN-WINTER SEAWARD AND OCEANIC MIGRATIONS
E. I. Kalchenko, А. V. Klimov, V. G. Erokhin, V. I. Shershneva, А. V. Morozova, М. I. Yureva*
CHUM SALMON, PINK SALMON, SEASONAL MIGRATION, BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Analysis of the dynamics of juvenile pink and chum salmon’s muscle tissue biochemical characteristics during autumn migrations to the Sea of Okhotsk and winter migrations to the north-western part of the Pacific Ocean has provided information about forage supply and seasonal energetic reversions in organism of the juvenile fish in the course of the first year of life at sea. The principal role of the autumn feeding in the life history of Pacific salmon consists in providing a rapid growth and intense accumulation of lipids as general reserves of energy. In winter young chum and pink salmon demonstrate intense spending of the lipids, accumulated in the muscle tissue for the autumn period, and transformation of the composition of their fatty acids towards a lower level of monounsaturated acids and a higher relative part of the щ-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially of the docosahexaenoic acid). A poor content of lipids and changing profiles of fatty acids in salmon’s muscle tissue in winter indicate of a high expenditure of accumulated energy required for adaptation to low water temperatures and worsening food supply. (p. 89)

BYCATCH OF DEMERSAL FISH SPECIES AT THE TRAP FISHING OF CRABS ON THE WEST AND EAST COASTS OF KAMCHATKA IN 2010 AND 2012
D. А. Terentyev, R. V. Dunaev, E. V. Gorba
WESTERN AND EAST COASTS OF KAMCHATKA, CRABS FISHING BY CONIC TRAPS, FISH BYCATCH
Composition of fish bycatch was analyzed by seasons on the base of data, collected in the course of trap fishing of crabs at the west coast of Kamchatka in 2010 and at the east coast of Kamchatka in July 2012. Principle mass objects of the bycatch were identified, their size-weight parameters were analyzed, and an assessment of the species removal in the course of the fishing the crabs in this area was provided. (p. 100)

COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THE CONCENTRATION OF COPPER IN THE HEPATOPANCREAS OF SNOW CRABS AND TANNER CRABS EXPOSED FISHING STRESS AND STARVATION
S. I. Moiseev*, S. A. Moiseeva**, A. M. Lapteva***

SNOW CRAB AND TANNER CRAB, POTS, FISHING ACTIVITY, CONCENTRATION, COPPER, HEPATOPANCREAS HEMOLYMPH, HEMOCYANIN

Changes in hepatopancreas copper levels following hemocyanin degradation of are investigated in the Snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) and Tanner crab (C. bairdi), exposed to repeated lift in pots or prolonged fasting. In both species of crabs translocation of copper from hemocyanin in hepatopancreas due to fishing stress occurs to a lesser extent than that due to starvation. These data allow us to estimate the long-term effects of fishing operations on the viability of crab Chionoecetes spp., released into the sea, after sorting the catch. (p. 105)

METHODS OF CALCULATION OF FLEXIBLE STANCHION ELEMENTS FOR HORIZONTAL OPENING AND REGULATION OF TRAWL
Е. V. Osipov, А. N. Boytsov
FLEXIBLE STANCHION ELEMENTS, REGULATION, HORIZONTAL OPENING, TRAWLS
Methods of calculation and regulation of flexible stanchion elements (FSEs) for horizontal opening of trawl, ensuring the FSE projected size and providing estimation of the efforts required for transformation of the horizontal opening of the trawl, are described in the paper.
(p. 111)

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