The Kamchatka River Estuary. The results of the complex surveys of the river ecosystem. Part II
THE PHYTOPLANKTON OF THE KAMCHATKA RIVER ESTUARY
BIOMASS, TAXONOMIC STRUCTURE, THE KAMCHATKA RIVER , PLANKTOTRICHETIC LAKE, PHYTOPLANKTON, ABUNDANCE, ECOLOGICAL STRUCTURE, ESTUARY
In the plankton of the estuarine water bodies of the Kamchatka River (the Kultuchnoe, Nerpich’e Lakes, the side channel Ozernaya, mouth area of the Kamchatka River, the Takhirskie Lakes — creeks-lagoons appeared in the place of the former Takhirka Gulf) were found 105 species, varieties and forms of microalgae. Blue-green algae Planktothrix agardhii, Limnothrix planctonica, Phormidium granulatum, Anabaena spp., Aphanozomenon cf. flexuosum, Nodularia spumigena, Woronochinia cf. compacta prevail in abundance and biomass with the dominant species Planktothrix agardhii. The salinity of the estuary lakes is increased during last 100 years that caused an increase in water mineralization and natural eutrophication of the lake zonе. As a result of the natural phenomenon, the estuarine water bodies (the Kultuchnoe and Nerpichie Lakes) have become planktotrichetic. They are characterized by a high concentration of mineral nitrogen (ammonium) up to 2 mgN/L, a high value ratio of mineral nitrogen to phosphorus (from 10 to 18), accumulation of hydrogen sulfide in the benthopelagic boundary layer and its opacity.
PRESENT-DAY STATE AND LONG-TERM CHANGES IN THE ICHTHYOFAUNA COMPOSITION OF THE KAMCHATKA RIVER ESTUARY
G.N. Markevich, P.N. Panfilova
ICHTHYOFAUNA, PACIFIC SALMONS, BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS, SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION, THE KAMCHATKA RIVER, THE NERPICH’E LAKE
This paper characterizes the present-day state of ichthyofauna in estuarine water bodies of the Kamchatka River (the Nerpich’e, Kultuchnoe and Таkhirskie Lakes) basing on 2009–2011 field studies. Actual estuarine water bodies are brackish water areas with the ichthyofauna composed by 17 fish species. In life history traits all the species of the study water bodies are divided into 3 ecological forms: permanent, semi-anadromous and transit. Permanent species of the first group are constantly present in the estuarine water bodies, semi-anadromous fish appear there only to spawn in winter and spring transit species just migrate through the estuary seaward and to the rivers. This study demonstrates that today fish fauna composition differs from that of the beginning of the XX-th century when the estuarine water bodies were freshwater. According to the determined interconnections between the salinity of estuarine water bodies and their ichthyofauna a prognosis of changing of the latter is given for the case of possible estuary’s freshening.
SOME RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH OF ANADROMOUS JUVENILE PACIFIC SALMON IN KAMCHATKA RIVER FOR THE PERIOD FROM 2000 TO 2010
E.А. Shevlyakov, D.Yu. Khivrenko, G.V. Bazarkin
JUVENILE PACIFIC SALMON, THE KAMCHATKA RIVER, STOCK ABUNDANCE
Juvenile Pacific salmon biostatistician data, collected in the system of Kamchatka River for the period 2000−2010, have been analyzed. Description of morphological and weight characteristics has provided for all species. Two waves in juvenile down stream migration of chum salmon under yearlings has revealed. Otherwise, there was no any authentic correlation between parental stock and generation they produce or certain age group in the generation revealed for mentioned data pool.
BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR CHINOOK SALMON ONCORHYNCHUS TSCHAWYTCHA (WALBAUM) OF THE KAMCHATKA RIVER BASIN
CHINOOK SALMON, THE KAMCHATKA RIVER, SPAWNERS, BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS, STOCK ABUNDANCE
Materials including both historical and present-day data are presented in this article. Analysis of the population structure of Chinook salmon of the Kamchatka River has been carried out. The aggregated biostatistical data provide evidence that the following considerable changes have occurred by the present time: “rejuvenation”, declines in the average size, reduction of the fecundity of females and their number.
The stock abundance of Chinook salmon of the Kamchatka River basin shows a significant decreasing trend caused by abrupt diminution of run size.
BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME PACIFIC SALMONS IN THE LOWER REACHES OF THE KAMCHATKA RI VER AT THE BEGINNING OF THE XX-TH CENTURY (ACCORDING TO THE RESULTS OF THE ANALYZED UNPUBLISHED ARCHIV AL DATA OF P. Y U. SCHMIDT)
G.N. Markevich, D.S. Pavlov
PACIFIC SALMONS, BIOLOGIAL CHARACTERISTICS, CATCHES, THE KAMCHATKA RIVER ,F.P. RYABUSHINSKIY’S EXPEDITION
1908–1909 never before published data on biological characteristics of Pacific salmons and catch dynamics in the lower reaches of the Kamchatka River collected by Kamchatkan Expedition of the Russian Geographical Society (Ryabushinskiy’s expedition) are reported in this article. The data presented in original materials (diaries, letters and separate notes) which were written by the head of zoological group of P.Yu. Schmidt’s expedition now are stored in the archives of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Russian Geographical Society. The authors of the article discovered, processed and analyzed them.
BIRDS OF THE KAMCHATKA RIVER MOUTH AREA
Yu.N. Gerasimov, R.V. Bukhalova, Yu.R. Zavgarova
BIRDS, THE KAMCHATKA RIVER, ESTIMATION, ABUNDANCE, NEST DENSITY
Survey of birds of mouth area of the Kamchatka River was carried on August 9–12, 2007; June 13–24, 2008; July 3–5, 2009; September 21–22, 2009; June 12–16, August 24–26, 2010; April 20 – May 24, June 11–15, June 21 – July 1, August 2–9, September 26 – October 2, 2011. The study area includes the Nerpich’e Lake with the islands siding with it in the West, vast wetlands and seaspits on both sides of the mouth of the Kamchatka River. Data on 126 bird species registered in the study area are summarized, 80 of the species are breeding or probably breeding. Transact estimation registration of birds of different habitats within a 228-km section was performed. Estimation of breeding colonies of gulls and terns was conducted by direct counting their nests with the birds “in”. In spring of 2011 stationary of waterbirds and shorebirds flowning through the study was been performed. The total abundance of waterbirds and shorebirds nesting in the area surveyed and stopping there during seasonal migrations is given.
HYDROLOGICAL REGIME OF THE KAMCHATKA RIVER IN THE LOWER REACHES AND ITS LONG-TERM VARIABILITY
N.L. Frolova, A.V. Stanovova, S.L. Gorin
HYDROLOGICAL REGIME, CLIMATE CHANGES, RUNOFF, THE KAMCHATKA RIVER
Long-term variability of air temperatures and precipitation amount, river and groundwater runoff as well as annual distribution of the runoff within the Kamchatka River basin has been analyzed. In this connection modern estimation of river and groundwater water resources for the whole river basin has been given.
MORPFHODYNAMICS OF KAMCHATKA RIVER MOUTH AREA IN THE XVIII–XX CENTURIES AND EFFECTS ON HYDROLOGICAL REGIME OF TRIBUTARY SYSTEM WITHIN THE AREA
GEOMORHOLOGY, HYDROLOGY, RIVER MOUTH AREA, ESTUARY, SEASHORES, THE KAMCHATKA RIVER
The paper is made to provide generalization of extensive literature information, including archive sources, on morphology of and hydrological regime in the mouth area of Kamchatka River in XVIII–XX centuries. Analysis of the information has revealed natural cycles in development of the object. A transition of marine sediments along the seashore and a drift of hard particles from the river in less extent create growing amount of sediments in the river mouth area and provide prolongation of sandbank in the mouth. On getting the sandbank 7 km in length the system of tributaries within the mouth area gets freshwater. Early or later the process of prolongation ends with a break near the base, and the system of tributaries comes back to brackish status. In this way the mouth area of Kamchatka River has been developing again and again. There were three cycles since early XVIII century to 1923, but in XX century this natural course was interrupted in view of multiple hydro technical operations within the estuary and at the sandbank.
MOUTH AREA OF THE KAMCHATKA RIVER AT THE BEGINNING OF THE XX-TH CENTURY: HYDROLOGICAL CONDITIONS, MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE, AQUATIC BIOTA (ACCORDING TO THE MATERIALS OF F.P. RYABUSHINSKIY’S EXPEDITION)
S.L. Gorin, E.V. Lepskaya, G.N. Markevich, L.А. Anisimova
F.P. RIABUSHINSKY’S EXPEDITION, THE KAMCHATKA RIVER, THE NERPICH’E LAKE, MOUTH AREA,HYDROLOGICAL CONDITIONS, MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE, LOWER PLANTS, INVERTEBRATES, ICHTYOFAUNA
The paper analyzes the material of F.P. Ryabushinskiy’s expedition describing the mouth area of the Kamchatka River. Among the studied manuscripts there are some rare materials and archives data which have never been published before. The analyzed expedition’s data show that in 1908–1909 the Nerpich’e and Kurilskoe Lakes were freshwater, most of the estuarine lagoons were freshwater too and only their seashore areas underwent poor alkalinization at the end of winter period. The mouth area biota was composed by freshwater lower plants, invertebrates and fish species. But in spite of all this, “sea” correlation of ions in the Nerpich’e and Kurilskoe Lakes as well as relic “sea” composition of fauna of invertebrates was observed throughout the whole area. Besides occasional catchings of semi-anadromous fish species (herring and smelt) in the Nerpich’e Lake were registered. The research data of F.P. Ryabushinskiy’s expedition describing the Kamchatka River mouth area are not outdated as they can be compared with present-day information on brackish-water stage of development of the mouth area.