DYNAMICS OF BIOLOGICAL CHARAC TERIS TICS OF PACIFIC SALMONS ONCORHYNCHUS SPAWNERS FROM THE APUKA RIVER AND THE OLUTORSKIY GULF OF THE BERING SEA IN 2007–2012
A.N. Elnikov, A.V. Gritsenko
PINK SALMON, CHUM SALMON, SOCKEYE SALMON, CHINOOK SALMON, BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS, SPAWN-RUNNING PERIOD
The article gives the results of 2007–2012 research studies of matured Pacific salmons g. Oncorhynchus collected from the Apuka River and the Oliutorskiy Gulf of the Bering Sea describing interannual and seasonal dynamics of their biological characteristics and the causes of such dynamics.
FORECASTING RUN SIZE OF CHUM SALMON SPAWNERS OF THE NORTH-EASTERN KAMCHATKA IN 2012–2014 BASING ON TRAWL COUNTING OF ITS JUVENILES DURING THE INITIAL YEAR OF THEIR OCEAN RESIDENCE
V.G. Erokhin, E.S. Voronova
FINGERLING, CHUM SALMON, DISTRIBUTION WITHIN THE SEA, TRAWL ACCOUNTING, SPAWNER’S RETURN, AGE COMPOSITION
On the base of 12 seasonal trawl accountings of juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) abundance in the Bering Sea estimation of fingerling abundance has been performed, the relationship between the smolt abundance and spawner’s returns has been analyzed. According to the results of trawl surveys carried out in 2008 and 2010 the number of returns of accounted generations has been forecasted for the period 2010–2016 and for the following years: 2012 (4.1 mln inds.), 2013 (6.0–6.2 mln inds.), 2014 (5.3–5.4 mln inds.).
QUESTION ABOUT THE STATE OF CAPELIN STOCK ABUNDANCE IN THE NORTHERN SEA OF OKHOTSK
M.N. Belij, M.Yu. Santalova
CATCH, ABUNDANCE EVALUATION, COMPLEX SURVEY, AGE COMPOSITION, SPAWNING, СAPELIN
Comparative characteristic of methods for Сapelin stock abundance evaluation is given. Data on age composition of spawning capelin are presented. Areas of its spawning runs in the coastal zones of the northern part of the Sea of Okhotsk are stated. The obtained data allow to reveal incorrect evaluation and to count anew the capelin stock abundance.
ABOUT BIOLOGY OF SAFFRON COD ELEGINUS GRACILIS INHABITING THE AVACHINSKAYA BAY (SOUT HEASTERN KAMCHATKA)
I.K. Trofimov, N.P. Sergeeva
SAFFRON COD, AVACHINSKAYA BAY, SIZE AND AGE COMPOSITION, MATURATION
Biological cycle and some other important life traits of saffron cod are characterized in this paper basing on the samples, collected from net, sweep-net and rod catches in the Avachinskaya Bay in 2004–2012. It has been established, that saffron cod inhabits the bay all year round. Body length and age of the caught fish varied and ranged from 11 to 43 cm and 0+ – 4+ years. Spring and summer catches mainly consist of juveniles of age 0+, 1 or 1+, which prefer to feed in shallow waters unlike elder individuals feeding in deep waters of the Avachinsky Gulf. More than 50% of autumn and winter catches were fish with the body length 21–43 cm of age 1+(2) or 2+(3), migrating from the gulf back to the bay for spawning and wintering. The fish with the gonads at the V-th stage of maturation were observed in January–February catches in the Krasheninnikova and Rakovaya Bays and in the Avacha River estuary, that provides evidence of spawning of saffron cod in these water basins during the winter period. Both first and common maturation of saffron cod of the Avachinskaya Bay occurs at the second year of its life cycle. At first maturity males’ length is 19 cm, females’ — 21 cm. Most of males become mature at length of 20 cm, and females — 23 cm.
REVIEW OF SAFFRON COD ELEGINUS GRACILIS (TIL.) FISHERY IN THE FAR EASTERN SEAS
SAFFRON COD, FAR EASTERN SEAS, FISHING INTENSITY, STATE OF POPULATION ABUNDANCE
Both foraging and spawning saffron cod are caught in the Far Eastern seas during commercial fishing by small and medium-tonnage purse seiners and trawlers. Besides it is a popular object of amateur and sport fishing. The 2003–2012 catch rate of saffron cod in the Far Eastern seas fluctuated between 16.7 and 38.2 thousand tons, averagely 27.0 thousand tons. During 2008–2012 period an average 1.5 increase in catch abundance was observed compared to the 2003–2007 period. The main harvesting occurs in Kamchatka. More than 2/3 of all commercial catches for the above period were made in the Okhotsk Sea, particularly in the western part of Kamchatka. The major areas for saffron cod commercial fishing are: Kamchatka-Kurilian, West-Kamchatkan, East-Sakhalin and Karaginskaya sub-zones. Poor fishing ccurs in Primorye, Okhotsko-Ayanskaya (the Northern Okhotsk Sea) and the Western Bering Sea areas (sub-zones of low population density). In general, the yield potential of saffron cod in the fishery sub-zones surveyed can be considered normal. Catch abundance of this fish species completely depends on fishing intensity.
DATA ON VARIATION OF MICROSATELLITE LOCI IN HERRING CLUPEA PALLASII FROM THE NERPICH’E LAKE
A.V. Semenova, A.N. Stroganov, G.A. Rubtsova, K.I. Afanasiev, G.N. Markevich, A.A. Smirnov
POPULATION GENETIC STRUCTURE OF FISHES, DNA POLYMOR PHISM, PACIFIC HERRING CLUPEA PALLASII
The genetic variations among herring samples, collected in 2010 and 2011 from the Nerpich’e Lake, have been studied using 9 microsatellite loci. All the loci, excluding Her71, were polymorphic with the expected heterozygosity estimates varying in different loci in the range of 0–94.5% (with a mean of 58.2%). The mean heterozygosity in the herring from the Nerpich’e Lake were lower than those in the herring from the Sea of Okhotsk.
BIOLOGY OF JUVENILE COHO SALMON IN SOME LAKE-RIVER SYSTEMS OF KAMCHATKA
Zh.H. Zorbidi, A.M. Biryukov, Т.N. Travina
JUVENILE COHO SALMON, SCALE STRUCTURE, AGE, FEEDING, MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION
Results of biological analysis of juvenile coho salmon from some lake-river systems — Palanskoye Lake, Nalychevo L., Kalygyr L.) of Kamchatka are demonstrated. Age composition of foraging juvenile coho salmon stocks and character of their feeding is figured out, data on morphometry are provided. Juvenile coho salmons in Nalychevo lake-river system are generally smaller comparing to those in the other systems. Underyearling coho salmon of Palanskoye Lake demonstrated extensive variety of body length and weight, body condition and intensity of foraging. The exterior difference between the representatives of different lakes is generally determined by configuration and size of pectoral fins and disposition of single and pair fins on the body. In this way the most active swimmers should be considered coho salmon of Kalygyr Lake.
QUESTION ABOUT DIFFERENTIATION OF YELLOWFIN SOLE LIMANDA ASPERA (PLEURONECTIDAE) STOCK ABUNDANCE IN THE NORTHERN OKHOTSK SEA FISHING AREA
YELLOWFIN SOLE, MORPHOLOGY, INTRASPECIFIC STRUCTURE, STOCK UNIT
The results of long-term morphometric studies of yellowfin sole within 14 sectors of the northern Okhotsk Sea fishing area are given in this paper. On the base of a complex statistical analysis it has been found that within the study water area yellowfin sole forms two morphologically separate local intraspecific groupings, geographically pertaining to the zones of high biological productivity. The analysis of survey findings has shown that these groupings can be regarded as different general aggregations and, accordingly, as independent stock units or management units. However, it will be possible to give a more definite conclusion about the population status of the identified groupings of yellowfin sole fish in the area surveyed after the population genetic research studies have been completed.
REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF COMMERCIAL SHRIMPS PANDALUS LATIROSTRIS INHABITING THE SEVERNAYA BAY (THE SLAVYANSKY CREEK, THE SEA OF JAPAN)
V.I. Kovaleva, G.G. Kalinina*
COMMERCIAL SHRIMP, PANDALUS LATIROSTRIS, GAMETOGENESIS, THE SEVERNAYA BAY
Reproductive glands of commercial shrimp Pandalus latirostris was being studied during the whole year. The obtained data on histological organization and cellular composition of reproductive glands complement the information on its reproductive biology and allow to determine maturation and spawning terms.
SEASONAL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION DYNAMICS OF LAMINARIA SP. (AVB_1) (LAMINARIALES, PHAEOPHYTA) GROWING IN POLLUTED AREAS OF THE AVACHA BAY (SOUTHEASTERN KAMCHATKA)
A.A. Koneva, N.G. Klochkova
LAMINARIA, PHENOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT, ALGINIC ACID, MANNITOL, IODINE, MINERAL AND ORGANIC SUBSTANCES, KAMCHATKA, AVACHA BAY, POLLUTION
Some results of studies of monthly changes in the total water content, dry, organic, and mineral substances, alginic acids, iodine and mannitol of the brown alga, Laminaria sp. (AvB_1) are given in this paper. The material for the studies was being collected from April to October of 2011 in the inner waters of the Avacha Bay which is characterized by a high level of anthropogenous pollution. It is revealed that in 2011 the disturbance of the regular succession of developmental phases of Laminaria sp. (AvB_1) occured, resulted in its repeated undergoing stage of linear growth during summer period and significant delay of reproduction timing. Deviation from the usual process of the species development was connected with the abnormally high seawater temperature in summer period that inhibited the plant’s maturation and induced decay of the considerable part of plant’s blades (lamina). The 2012 research work showed that additional stress affected Laminaria sp. (AvB_1) provoked lowering of its reproduction and as a consequence in 2011 the species disappeared from the macrophytobenthos composition of the observation area.