KAMCHATKA’S NATURAL RESOURCE POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT AND THE PROBLEMS OF ITS USE IN THE LONG TERM
E.E. Shirkova, E.I. Shirkov, M.Yu. Dyakov
KAMCHATKA, KAMCHATKA SHELF, NATURAL RESOURCES, NATURE MANAGEMENT
Simplified methodological approaches for evaluation of comparative environmental and economic efficiency of different nature management strategies based on the concept of natural capital and capitalized absolute resource rents as a comparable for the heterogeneous elements of the NRP in the log term are offered in the article.
FOOD INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOME COMMERCIAL FISH SPECIES AT EARLY LIFE STAGES
V.I. Karpenko, А.А. Bonk
INTERSPECIFIC INTERACTIONS, PREDATION, PACIFIC SALMON, PACIFIC HERRING, FLOUNDERS, WALLEYE POLLOCK, PACIFIC CAPELIN, YIELD FORMATION
Food interactions in Karaginsky Gulf, the Bering Sea, were analyzed for young fish of 15 species on the base of the pairs “predator-prey”. Major consumers of the young fish, including some representatives of avian fauna, affecting strongly yield formation of fish generations have been revealed. Schemes of multispecies food interactions in the costal and off coastal zones of Karaginsky Gulf have been demonstrated.
THE DIATOM FLORA OF SALMON LAKES OF KORYAK HIGHLANDS, KAMCHATKA
S.I. Genkal, Е.V. Lepskaya
DIATOM, NEW SPECIES, ELECTRON MICROSCOPY STUDIES, LAKES OF KORYAK HIGHLANDS, KAMCHATKA
Studying the diatom flora in the lakes Vatat-Gytkhyn, Ilyr-Gytkhyn and Potat-Gytkhyn (Koryak Highlands, Kamchatka) has revealed 275 species, variations and morphs of 65 genera, 90, 125 and 142 taxa respectively (list of species is attached). Each lake has specific diatom algae community; maximum taxonomic diversity is revealed for the genera Achnanthes s.l., Navicula s.l.and Fragilaria s.l.(60, 55 and 30 taxa respectively). Brief descriptions and data on ecology and distribution and some original illustrations are provided for 50 morphs estimated to genera and 31 new species of diatom flora revealed in Russia.
DEVELOPMENT OF GAMETOPHYTES OF LAMINARIACEAN ALGAE ALARIA MARGINATA FROM THE AVACHA BAY (SOUTHEAST KAMCHATKA) UNDER LABORATORY-CONTROLLED CONDITIONS
A.V. Klimova, T.A. Klochkova
ALARIA MARGINATA, LAMINARIALES, ZOOSPORE, GAMETOPHYTE, POROPHYTE, BIOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENT, KAMCHATKA
Early stages of development under laboratory-controlled conditions were investigated in the laminariaceae alga, Alaria marginata Postels et Ruprecht, from Kamchatka. Mature sporophytes with developed sporangial sori were collected on April 20, 2014 from the Avacha Bay (Zavojko inlet), and liberation of zoospores was induced in the laboratory. Thereafter, we observed microscopic life cycle stages for 90 days, from the process of zoospore liberation and settlement until the appearance of juvenile sporophytes. In our culture conditions, the gametophyte stage continued for 34 days, and gametogenesis started at 27th day after zoospore settlement. First juvenile sporophytes appeared by 37th day of cultivation, and their subsequent morphological differentiation took place after 10 days. After 3 months of cultivation in the laboratory, young sporophytes were 2–4 mm at length. Because our culture conditions were similar to those in the natural environment, it can be assumed that the sporulation of A. marginatain April leads to the formation of a new generation of sporophytes in late June – earlyJuly in the Avacha Bay.
STATE OF STOCK AND ASSESSMENT OF STOCK ABUNDANCE OF BLUE KINGCRAB (PARALITHODES PLATYPUS, BRANDT) IN THE WEST KAMCHATKA SUBZONE FOR FISHERY CAMPAIGN 2013
STATE OF STOCK, DISTRIBUTION, BODY SIZE STRUCTURE, SURVEY, STOCK ABUNDANCE ASSESSMENT, FISHING
Specifics of spatial distribution of blue king crabs depending body size or functionality and plots of the maximal aggregations is figured out on the base of results of trap survey, carried in the West Kamchatka subzone in April and May of 2013, and surveys for earlier period. Data of biological analysis and fishery data obtained in the course of commercial fishing are used also. Size-frequency distribution of male blue king crabs is analyzed and results are compared to earlier period; an assessment of the commercial male stock and of the commercial stock abundance is made. Evaluation of state of the blue king crab stock in the West Kamchatka subzone for the fishery campaign 2013 is provided.
ВLACK MAT SYNDROME IN THE SNOW CRAB CHIONOECETES OPILIO POPULATION OF THE NORTHERN PART OF THE SEA OF OKHOTSK
S.V. Klinushkin, Т.V. Ryazanova
SEA OF OKHOTSK, SNOW CRAB, TRICHOMARIS INVADENS, PREVALENCE, BLACK MAT SYNDROME
This paper provides data on the distribution of the Trichomaris invadensinfection (black mat syndrome) in the population of snow crab Chionoecetes opilio in the northern part of the Sea of Okhotsk. A high frequency of fungal Trichomaris invadensinfection in snow crabs is revealed around Iona Bank and nowhere else in the other sites. Same infection is revealed for the first time in spider crab Hyas coarctatus alutaceus. Histological analysis provided for infected crabs has demonstrated penetration of the fungal hyphae into the sensory neuron channels, epidermal, connective and muscle tissue.
CATCHABILITY COEFFICIENT DANISH SEINER ESTIMATION USING INSTRUMENTAL METHOD
I.V. Roy, O.M. Lapshin, M.I. Malin
DANISH SEINE FISHERY, COEFFICIENT OF CATCHABILITY, HYDROACOUSTIC SURVEY, DENSITY DISTRIBUTION
Based on the results of hydroacoustic surveys and data from personal experiments on the mechanics of Danish seine for the period from 2011 to estimate the catchability coefficient (CC). To measure the value of CC there were used three different approaches to calculation of the biomass in a suspective active zone of Danish seine.
Analysis of the characteristics of each approach in combination with the data on the vertical distribution of fish received by hydroacoustic method allowed to determine the most likely horizon of the water column, the fish are herdered by the seine ropes to the catching zone when the ropes moving across the bottom.
DISTRIBUTION, SEASONAL MIGRATIONS AND STOCK ABUNDANCE OF BELUGA WHALE (DELPHINAPTERUS LEUCAS LINNAEUS, 1758) IN THE PACIFIC SECTOR OF ARCTIC
BELUGA WHALE, SEASONAL MIGRATION, ABUNDANCE, THE CHUKCHI SEA, THE BERING SEA, CHUKOTKA PENINSULA
A review of seasonal distribution and migrations of beluga whales in the Pacific sector of Arctic is provided on the base of author’s observations and literature data. It is demonstrated that beluga whales spend winter mainly in the Western Bering Sea near airholes and cracks in thick ice or divorced ices. There are no spatial segregation of different white whale stocks wintering in the Bering Sea revealed. It is found that on wintering the whales migrated northward mainly in the west part of the Bering Sea and across the Bering Strait to the North-Western coast of Alaska. In summer season beluga whales were rare in Chukotka peninsula coastal zone of the Bering and the Chukchi Seas. Aside of beluga whales who leaved for high latitudes for summer feeding, there were groups (stocks or populations) of the animals, stayed in the Bering Sea. These groups did not undertake distant migrations and were feeding in the bays and estuaries of large rivers of the Bering Sea. Such observations can confirm hypothesis about two ecological forms of beluga whales occurring in the Pacific sector of the Arctic. In the Chukchi Sea during fall time beluga whales mainly undertake autumn migrations to the northern shore of Chukotka peninsula and then to the Bering Strait. In the Northern Bering Sea they form temporary concentrations in area between the capes Peek – Litke – Nunyamo from which in large stocks redistribute to the South direction.
SIZE COMPOSITION OF SAFFRON COD ELEGINUS GRACILIS IN THE DANISH SEINE CATCHES ON THE SHELF NEARBY KORYAK UPLANDS (THE WESTERN BERING SEA) IN AUGUST–SEPTEMBER IN 2003
I.K. Trofimov, P.M. Pochinok
SAFFRON COD, SIZE COMPOSITION, DANISH SEINE FISHING, SHELF, KORYAK UPLANDS
The dynamics of the saffron cod body length composition in the catches depending on the latitude and the depth of each certain Danish seine operation was analyzed on the base of materials, collected in the course of Danish seine fishing on the shelf along Koryak Uplands (the Western Bering Sea) in August–September in 2003. It is demonstrated, that saffron cod individuals near the rocky coast of the Olyutorsky Cape, in the southern part of the area of the research, are larger, than individuals in the northern part with wider shelf and a number of bays and lagoons.
NEW DATA ON THE FAUNA OF MYSIDS (CRUSTACEA, MYSIDACEA) NEAR KAMCHATKA WATERS
N.A. Sedova, M.Yu. Murasheva
WEST KAMCHATKA, AVACHINSKY GULF, DEPTHS, ABUNDANCE, OCCURRENCE, DISTRIBUTIONComposition of mysids species was studied in the waters off Kamchatka. Four species, including Meterythrops microphthalma, Neomysis rayii, Stilomysis grandis, Xenocanthomysis pseudomacropsis, were found in the waters off the West Kamchatka and seven species, including Amblyops abbreviata, Boreomysis arctica, Dactylamblyops sarsi, Holmesiella anomala, Parerythropssp., Praunus inermis, X. pseudomacropsis, — off the south-east coast of Kamchatka. Partial similarity between Kamchatkan fauna of mysids and Arctic and Japan Sea faunae is demonstrated. Maps of the spatial distribution of mysids in the waters off Kamchatka are provided.